Exhaled volatile organic compounds: effective in detecting breast cancer?

Aneliz Alamilla-Valenzuela, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatía, IPN, Ciudad de México, México
Jhonnatan S. Erazo-Lema, Facultad de Medicina, Corporación Universitaria Empresarial Alexander von Humboldt, Armenia, Quindío, Colombia
Belem S. Hernández-Hernández, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Edo. de México, México
Brayant de J. Vega-Escalante, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Los Mochis, Sin., México
Verónica V. Sarabia-Aguayo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Nay., México
Emma L. Aguirre-Cervantes, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Los Mochis, Sin., México
Esther I. Sampablo-Flores, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Monterrey, Monterrey, N.L., México
Natalie H. Torres-Meza, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Ver., México
Mauricio Salcedo, Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Oncológicas, Hospital de Oncología, Centro Médico Nacional S. XXI, IMSS, Ciudad de México, México

Background: Breast cancer (BrCa) present a highest mortality rate, and its early diagnosis could improve the survival of the patient. At present, there are leading tests used for BrCa detection, but a novel alternative, non-invasive test, such as breath analysis (exhalomic) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are being taken into consideration. Methods: A systematic review (until June 2022) about VOC detection from breath by using gas chromatography was performed. The goal was to identify probable oncometabolites in the gas sample from healthy breast tissue women, benign or malignant lesions, and including cultured cell lines. Results: There are a complex heterogeneity of exhaled VOC mainly alkanes in the analyzed samples, and between the different populations. Discussion: Even when exhaled VOC are detected, some more works should be performed to have conclusions. Interestingly some VOC are shared with other cancer types. Conclusions: Nowadays, there is no specific BrCa VOC-profile associated for BrCa or benign lesions diagnosis.

Keywords: Gas chromatography. Exhalation. Breast cancer. Volatile organic compounds.